Ceramics in Mainland Southeast Asia:
Collections in the Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery

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Ewer

  • Stoneware with wood-ash glaze
  • 36 x 21.1 x 20.1 cm
  • 1075-1250, Angkor period
  • Origin: Cambodia or Northeast Thailand
  • Gift of Victor and Takako Hauge
  • S1997.131

Published References

1. Cort, Louise Allison, Massumeh Farhad, and Ann C. Gunter. 2000. Asian Traditions in Clay: The Hauge Gifts. Washington, D.C.: Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery, 147 (illus.), no. 68.

2. Cort, Louise Allison (translated by Tabata Yukitsugu). 2002. "Kumeeru tōki—Hauge korekushon wo chūshin to shita Kumeeru tōki no kenkyū (Khmer ceramics—research on Khmer ceramics centering on the Hauge collection)." Tōnan Ajia kōkogaku [Journal of Southeast Asian Archaeology] (Journal of the Japan Society of Southeast Asian Archaeology) 22: 165, cat. no. 68.

Curatorial Remarks

1. (Louise Cort, 3 June 1999) The truncated conical form of the neck rim of this vessel is distinct from the shapes on bottles and jars associated with the Khmer kilns in Northeast Thailand. It resembles the outsized, conical, grooved rims on small green-glazed jars recovered by the French from kiln sites in Cambodia on Phnom Kulen and more recently found at kiln sites at Tani Village and elsewhere in the region between Phnom Kulen and Rolous. The necks on large jars with thin brown glaze found at the flatland kiln sites also have conical rims with multiple grooves (Ozaki 1996, 22). Since the kiln sites both on the plateau and on the flatland are associated with early dates of ceramic production, the similar neck on this large ewer may also be an indication of a relatively early date.

Ozaki Naoto. 1996. "Shin hakken no Kanbojia no tōki [New discoveries in Cambodian ceramics]." Me no me [The discerning eye] 236(May): 13–23.

2. (Louise Cort, 25 June 1999) Bernard Groslier mentioned this type of rim as "very typical" of the last quarter of the 11th century (Groslier 1981, 28) and he cites an example in Brown 1977, 41 and fig. 16 (a brown-glazed bottle, with beading around the lower edge of the rim and combing on the shoulder).  With its lack of combing and emphasis on moulded decoration, this vessel would date earlier (probably prior to the mid-11th century) according to Groslier's concept of stylistic development (ibid., 24, 27).

Groslier, Bernard Philippe. 1981. "Introduction to the Ceramic Wares of Angkor". Pp. 9–39 in Khmer Ceramics 9th–14th Century, edited by Diana Stock. Singapore: Oriental Ceramics Society.

Brown, Roxanna M. 1977. The Ceramics of South-East Asia: their dating and identification. 1st ed. Singapore: Oxford University Press.

3. (Louise Cort, 30 June 1999) The format of this ewer, with upright spout and loop handle, corresponds to Chinese qingbai-glazed porcelain ewers of the Northern Song dynasty (960–1127).

4. (Louise Cort, 14 July 1999) A bronze Khmer ewer with extremely weightly-looking rim, nearly horizontal shoulders, upright spout, and thick beveled base (h. 7 cm), dated to circa 1200, is published in Guy 1996–1997, fig. 11.

Guy, John. 1996–1997. "A Reassessment of Khmer Ceramics—Lecture given by John Guy on 13th May 1997." Transactions of the Oriental Ceramic Society 61: 39–63.

5. (Louise Cort, 23 July 1999) A brown-glazed ewer with upright spout but no handle is in the Southeast Asian Ceramics Museum in Kyoto (Fujiwara 1990, pl. 34). It is dated 12th–13th century.

Fujiwara Hiroshi. 1990. Kumeeru ōkoku no kotō (Khmer Ceramics from the Kamratan Collection). Singapore: Oxford University Press.

6. (Louise Cort, 30 April 2001), (Note added to S1996.155) The V-shaped line incised around the upright spout of this vessel (S1996.155) probably indicates a detail of a seam in the metal prototype for such a ewer. A similar line appears around the base of a bird-headed spout on a pedestal-footed ewer represented in a stone relief of Brahma, from central Java, that belong to the Los Angeles County Museum of Art (M2000.30).The ewer represented in the Javanese relief is presumably metal. It appears at the based of the deity's throne, alongside a pedestal-footed incense burner (cf. S1996.164). The ewer and the incense burner presumably represent a standard set of ritual objects.

7. (Louise Cort, 29 November 2001) A measured drawing of this vessel was prepared by Miyata Etsuko in July 2000, while she was in Washington on a Short-term Visitor Grant with my sponsorship.  She sent the final ink tracing to me in September this year.

8. (Louise Cort, 16 January 2017) Changed Date from 11th-13th century to 1075-1250, following Desbat's revised chronology based on excavations in the Angkor area over the past two decades (Desbat 2011, 26). Evidence for green-glazed Buriram-type bowls (distinguished by the formation of the base) at Angkor-area sites begins in the late 12th century but may date to the beginning of the 12th century, coinciding with the end of production of green-glazed "Kulen" wares in the Angkor area (Desbat 2011, 15-16).

Armand Desbat. 2011. Pour une revision de la chronologie des gres khmers. Aseanie 27 (juin), 11-34.


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