Ceramics in Mainland Southeast Asia:
Collections in the Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery

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Jar with four vertical lugs and incised decoration

  • Stoneware with iron glaze
  • 56.3 x 32 cm
  • Quang Duc ware
  • 18th-mid 20th century, Restored Later Le, Tay Son, or Nguyen dynasty
  • Origin: Phu Yen province, Central Vietnam
  • Gift of Osborne and Gratia Hauge, and Victor and Takako Hauge
  • S2005.172

Description

Jar of cylindrical form with broad, rounded shoulder tapering towards foot, tapered tall neck, rounded rim and flat base. Four grooved lugs with thumb-pressed ends on shoulder.
Clay: brown stoneware.
Glaze: iron, blackish-brown with iridescent silvery streaks, glossy, opaque; band of iron pigment (fired red) on shoulder.
Decoration: incised horizontal lines at shoulder and base; floral motifs filling main section of body..

Published References

1. Dupoizat, Marie-France. 1988. “Recherches sur les Jarres en Asie du Sud-Est.” Ph.D. Thesis, L'École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales, Paris: 76, 497–498.

Curatorial Remarks

1. (Louise Cort, July 30, 2002) Same family as Hauge nos. 14, 17, 16 (S2005.152, 173, and 177).

2. (Candy Chan, Research Assistant, April 29, 2003) David Rehfuss (a collector of Vietnamese ceramics and president of the Washington Oriental Ceramic Group, WOCG) showed me a photograph that he took from a two-weeks study tour to Vietnam in October–November 1999, organized by the Asian Ceramics Research Organization, ACRO. The photograph has a gourd shaped bottle and a lime pot with a broken handle that coated with plenty of sea shells. They show similar glazing technique as this vessel. These 'sea-shell glazed wares' were products of Tuy Hoa, capital township of Phu Yen province in Central Vietnam.

I quote below David's notes:

"Phu Yen Province in Central Vietnam has made ceramics with sea shells from the 18th century until 1945. The addition of calcium makes a very fine shiny glaze, a Chinese technique imported from South China. Phu Yen province is on the coast, south of Binh Dinh province. Kiln was found along a river (possibly *Da Rang River). The kiln site is well known. Professor Trinh Cao Truong (a practicing archaeologist working for the Institute of Archaeology in Hanoi, North Vietnam) said that shells were put in kiln chamber for glaze-making. Quang Nam province and Phu Yen province are two centers making 'sea-shell' glazed large jars, yet it is the most common product in Phu Yen province. Professor Truong says that there are many examples in the Phu Yen Provincial Museum in Tuy Hoa (the capital township of Phu Yen province)."

* Remarks: Tuy Hoa Town is situated on the banks of the mouth of the Da Rang River.

3. (Louise Cort, 12 June 2003). The collector Jochen May owns an "Oc Eo" bowl with impressed shell marks, which I saw on a visit to his home in Neustadt, Germany, in September 1998.

4. (Louise Cort, 29 January 2004)  Potter Mark Hewitt, Pittsboro, North Carolina, observed that the glaze is so saturated with iron that silvery streaks have formed, from the crystallization of the iron.

5. (Louise Cort, 28 January 2005) Marie-France Dupoizat reproduces this jar with reference to jars of the same sort in the catalogue prepared in the 1930s by Paul Guilleminet (1888–1966) of the indigenous connoisseurship of various types of jars used by the Bahnars in the central highlands of Vietnam. (He conducted his research while living in Kon Tum.) This Hauge jar resembles his Family XXIII, type 6, "height 45–60 cm., large cylindrical neck, the mouth rim triangular in section. The jars of this type sometimes have a lid, but this is exceptional. The type includes three varieties: (a) well glazed, of a uniform brilliant black, without decoration; (b) the upper part black, the lower part ivory-white; (c) the upper part black, the lower part ruddy. All the jars of this type documented in 1940 were valued at 8 to 10 buffaloes." (Dupoizat 1988, 74).

The jar is also documented as her H20 and weighs 7 kg (ibid., 497–98). She groups jars with shell adhesions on the base and body among her Vietnamese jars but comments, "They were made in Vietnam, but we know nothing of their kilns of origin or their date of fabrication, except that they seem to me to be recent in date: 18–19th century" (ibid., 495).

Dupoizat, Marie-France. 1988. "Recherches sur les Jarres en Asie du Sud-Est". Ph.D. Thesis, L'École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales, Paris.

6. (Louise Cort, 15 February 2005) A jar of this type (height 48 cm) was excavated from Hakata. (Morimoto 2004, 14 [fig. 12], 10[no. 37]). Morimoto identifies the jar as of Northern Vietnamese manufacture. Morimoto comments, "Near Hai Duong, the vicinity of Ban Yen is a vast site of kilns for production of unglazed stoneware. Moreover kilns throughout the north produced this kind of stoneware with "rope curtain pattern" [vertical chattering]. At the present it is impossible to specify the place of production of this jar, and it can simple be associated with northern Vietnam. Accordingly the date of production is also unclear" (ibid., 3). The jar came from site 60, from a layer that dates to the 17th century or later.

Morimoto Asako. 2004. "Hakata shutsudo no Tōnan Ajia tōjiki ni tsuite (Southeast Asian Ceramics from Hakata, Fukuoka)". Pp. 1–14 in Tōjiki ga kataru kōryū—Kyūshū, Okinawa kara shutsudo shita Tōnan Ajia tōjiki (Interrelations between Kyushu and Southeast Asia—Through Southeast Asian Ceramics found in Kyushu and Okinawa). Kagoshima: symposium sponsored by Tōnan Ajia Kōkogakkai (Japan Society for Southeast Asian Archaeology), Kyushu Kokuritsu Hakubutsukan [Kyushu National Museum], and Kagoshima Daigaku Maizo Bunkazai Chōsashitsu [Kagoshima University Buried Cultural Properties Research Room].

7. (Louise Cort, 12 October 2005) Archaeologist and ceramics specialist Morimoto Asako, Fukuoka, noted the blue-black glaze with silvery streaks, the shell scars on the flat base, the mid-body seam, the abundance of visible coiling seams and fingerprints inside. This is a smaller version of S2005.170; S2005.177 is a smaller version in the same family. This jar was fired on the hot side: the glaze below the lugs has melted to translucent brown.

8. (Louise Cort, 24 May 2007) Two much more elaborately decorated jars of this ware are in the collection of the Museum of Vietnamese History, Ho Chi Minh City. Both were seized by customs and turned over to the museum. Jar 6485 (h. 32 cm) bears four lugs and a double row of applied dots around the shoulder just below the lugs. Hand-modeled figures of lizards are applied to the shoulders between the lugs. The bar body bears a design of a dragon executed with painted white slip and incised details, reminiscent of the approach to decorating water jars at the kilns in Ratchaburi, Thailand, that were established by immigrant potters from Guangdong. The glaze is shiny and black on the body but matte on the shoulder. The inside is unglazed. The flat base (diam. 12 cm) is encrusted with the remnants of small shells.

The second jar (6431, h.33.0 cm) is much more clumsily formed, with an elongated neck but no clear definition of the shoulder. Around the shoulder is a painted band of white slip, combined with hastily incised designs too abstract to interpret. The lower body is incised with bands of alternating straight and wavy lines. Over the white slip, the glaze appears green; over the rest of the body, it appears reddish-brown because of the color of the clay body. Shell scars appear on the lower half of the body and the flat base.

9. (Louise Cort, 2 June 2007) The Phu Yen Museum, Tuy Hoa, owns a tall, unglazed jar with six lugs and two rows of applied clay buttons (h. 56 cm, diam. mouth 18 cm, diam. base 16 cm). The dense, dark brown clay body contains numerous white inclusions. Although the surface is matte, the flat base is shiny and shows the scars of many shells. Another, larger jar of the same type (h. 68 cm, diam. 45 cm, diam. mouth 28.5 cm, diam. base 28 cm) shows no traces of shells.

The museum also owns a lime paste pot with a brownish surface and shells adhering to its slightly concave base, a small gourd shaped bottle with greenish glaze and overall shell scars, and a round bottle with shiny black surface and shell scars (diam. base 9.5 cm; acc. no. 1066).

At this museum, all unglazed stoneware was attributed to the Quang Duc kiln site in Tuy An district, 30 kilometers north of Tuy Hoa. During a visit to the kiln on 3 June, we were told by an elderly potter (age 83), that Cham potters had worked there 500 years ago; Chinese potters from Chaozhou, Guangdong province, were here in the 17th–18th century, for three generations only; ethnic Vietnamese (Kinh) potters came three hundred years ago, in the 18th century, from Binh Dinh. Two workshops still operate. According to museum staff, the products used to be shipped by coastal boat south to Nha Trang and north to Binh Dinh province. The elderly potter also spoke of making flower pots to send by boat to Hue.

The kilns also made jars; they were fired in the front of the kiln, where they would become hard, while roof tiles and other products were fired at the back. Jars were made from a green clay, to which no sand was added, while tiles and other soft wares were made from black clay. Both men and women made jars, but in the case of very large ones, women shaped while men turned the wheel. The jars were fired in huge kilns four times the size of the ones presently in use, about 2 meters high at the tallest point within the chamber. The kilns had two fireboxes and two low chimneys about 50 cm tall. Those kilns were in use until the American war (when they were damaged or destroyed by bombing). The various sizes of jars were also understood as standard measures. People came from the mountains to buy then, and local Kinh people took jars into the mountains to trade.

The potter told us he used to use shells in the kiln firing, scattering them between unglazed vessels so they would not stick. Any kind of sea shell (from the beach 4–5 kilometers away) could be used. The shells "became water" and added color to the ceramics.

Meanwhile, south of Tuy Hoa, in Hoa Vinh commune, Tuy Dong district, ethnic Vietnamese (Kinh) potters make earthenware. The potters are women. They have been here seven generations (roughly 140–150 years). The vessel forms include bowls and small jars. Round-bottom cooking pots are shaped on a turntable-like wheel, by a process of coiling onto a flat base, throwing, then scraping inside and outside with a ring-shaped bamboo tool. These pots resemble the pots recovered from a shipwreck site off Vung Tau, together with cylindrical stoneware jars with rounded walls (note above).

10. (Louise Cort, 14 June 2007) According to Dr. Nguyen Dinh Chien, Museum of Vietnamese History, Hanoi, this jar probably dates to the 19th or 20th century. It is carefully made.

11. (Louise Cort, 7 October 2008) At the Dak Lak Provincial Museum, Buon Me Thuat, during our research trip with Dr. Luu Hung, Vietnam Museum of Ethnology, in March 2006, we were shown a jar of this type with shell-scarred brownish-black glaze over a dark clay body containing granules of white sand or stone.

12. (Louise Cort, 14 November 2014) Curators at the Khanh Hoa Provincial Museum, Nha Trang, during a visit on 31 May 2007, identified S2005.152 and S2005.174 as types formerly made at kilns once active in the districts of Ninh Hoa and Khanh Vinh, to the interior from Nha Trang. S2005.170 and 171 were also identified as coming from Khanh Vinh, S2005.172, 173, and 177 as from Ninh Hoa. S2005.178 was associated with Ninh Hoa as well as Lu Cam, a kiln upriver from Nga Trang.

13. (Louise Cort, 16 May 2015) Corrected Title from Jar with eight vertical lugs to Jar with four vertical lugs.

14. (Louise Cort, 18 July 2016) A jar from this kiln is in the collection of the National Museum of Natural History, Anthropology Collection, E404544. It has two rows of bosses circling the shoulder beneath an uneven dark green translucent glaze similar to that on the bottle S2005.156. Shell scars appear on the flat base. The jar was part of a large group of Asian objects given to the NMNH by the Philadelphia Trade and Convention Center. Pending further research in the NMNH archives, it is possible that this jar and the rest of the collection could have come from the Philadelphia Commercial Museum, a component of the Center, established through purchase of items remaining from the 1893 World's Columbian Exposition, opened in a permanent building in 1899, and closed in 1994.

According to the Thanh Nien News, 23 March 2015 (accessed online), the potter with whom we had spoken, Nguyen Trinh (see Note 7), died in early 2014.

Changed Origin from Tuy Hoa to Quang Duc village; to Ware added Quang Duc ware.


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