Jar with four horizontal lugs and incised decoration

  • Stoneware with iron glaze
  • 34 x 28.3 cm
  • Sawankhalok ware
  • late 14th-late 15th century, Ayutthaya period
  • Origin: Ban Ko Noi kilns, Si Satchanalai, Sukhothai province, North-central Thailand
  • Provenance: Bangkok or Ayutthaya, Thailand
  • Gift of Osborne and Gratia Hauge, and Victor and Takako Hauge
  • S2005.244


Brown stoneware

Curatorial Remarks

1. (Louise Cort, 12 October 2005) Comments from Morimoto Asako, archaeologist specializing in Vietnamese and Chinese ceramics recovered from Hakata (Fukuoka), Short-term Visitor to study the Hauge collection:

Probably Si Satchanalai? The base bears ash spread on the wheel head during forming and was not further trimmed. The side walls were trimmed to mid-body (or smoothed with a blade). The inside of the walls bear horizontal scars of a wooden tool-presumably the wooden blade used in tandem with a wooden blade on the outside for the process of forming by coiling and throwing commonly used for shaping jars.

The unglazed interior walls show traces of an organic deposit, possibly riverweed, suggesting that this jar was recovered from the Chao Phraya River at Ayutthaya--one source of vessels collected by the Hauges in Thailand.

2. (Louise Cort, 12 July 2006) Or from the Maenam Noi kilns in Singburi province.

3. (Louise Cort, 14 January 2007) Or possibly from Ban Tao Hai kilns, Phitsanulok.

Don Hein terms glazed jars of this type from kilns at Si Satchanalai as LASW (Late Stoneware), which he associates with "output particularly designed to meet export demand." These wares were fired in surface kilns (Hein 2001, figs. 53c–e). Hein is cautious about dating but implies a 15th–16th century date for Late Stonewares (Hein 1999, 150).

To Date added 15th–16th century.

Hein, Don. 2001. "The Sawankhalok Ceramic Industry: from Domestic Enterprise to Regional Entrepreneur". PhD Thesis, Department of Science and Technology, Deakin University, Melbourne.

Hein, Don. 1999. "The First Underglaze Painted Decoration at Sawankhalok: identification of a key influence? (Diqu shouci chuxian de youxia caihui: Taigou taoci tazhan shi shang wailai yingxiang de zhongyao xiansuo?)." Guoli Taiwan daxue Meishushi yanjiu jikan (The Taida Journal of Art History) 7: 137–158.

4. (Louise Cort, 23 May 2007) A jar of similar size and shape, slightly less rotund, was on view at the Museum of Vietnamese History, Ho Chi Minh City. It was recovered in 1991 from a shipwreck off Hon Dam Island, Kien Giang province. Also on board the ship were celadon-glazed Sawankhalok ware bowls and dishes from Si Satchanalai.

5. (Louise Cort, 7 Feb 2008) Mukai Kou's research (2003) indicated that jars with this type of neck, which he terms "long neck"—with a tall, trumpet-shaped moth, rising at a sharp angle from the jar's shoulder—were made at the Si Satchanalai kilns but not at the Maenam Noi kilns. He terms them Si Satchanalai Type I. They occur in three sizes—large (h. 50–60 cm), medium (h. around 45 cm) and small (h. around 30 cm). This jar thus is a small Type I jar.

The Si Satchanalai Type I jars are the earliest form of black-glazed jars with four lugs. They begin to appear on shipwrecks during the second half of the fourteenth century, joining jars from the Ban Bang Pun kilns. The earliest excavated example is from the Japanese site of Sakai (SKT112), from a stratum dated 1375–1400. Another long-necked jar is excavated from a Sakai site, SKT 82, dated 1425–1450. In the early 15th century, both large and small long-necked jars were recovered from the Turiang shipwreck. On the Nanyang shipwreck of the same time frame, however, a new type of Si Satchanalai jar emerges—Mukai's Si Satchanalai Type II, with a short neck curving up from the jar shoulder without a sharp distinction.

Type I jars continue to appear at mid-15th century sites (Shuri Castle Kyo-no-uchi site) and on shipwrecks (Royal Nanhai, Ko Khram). Thereafter, while Type I jars do continue to appear (on the Hoi An shipwreck, for example, in the late 15th–early 16th century), they are gradually replaced by jars from Maenam Noi. The Type I jars that appear as late as the San Diego shipwreck (1600) mat be old jars in reuse.

Based on Mukai's analysis, the broadest date for this jar is late 14th–late 15th century. Changed Date from 15th–16th century to late 14th–late 15th century. Changed Ware from Sawankhalok or Maenam Noi ware to Sawankhalok ware. Changed Geography accordingly.

Mukai Kou. 2003. "Tai kokkatsuyū shijiko no bunrui to nendai (The Study on Brown Glazed Storage Jars, exported from Thailand)." Bōeki Tōji Kenkyū (Trade Ceramics Studies) 23: 90–105 (Japanese), 161 (English summary).

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