Ceramics in Mainland Southeast Asia:
Collections in the Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery

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Stove

  • Earthenware
  • 16.2 x 38.5 x 25.8 cm
  • 16th-17th century, Ayutthaya period
  • Origin: Ayutthaya province, Chao Phraya River network, Central Thailand
  • Provenance: Probably Ayutthaya, Thailand
  • Gift of Osborne and Gratia Hauge, and Victor and Takako Hauge
  • S2005.411

Description

Stove with flat fire hearth, a raised section at one end with three protuberances for holding pot, two holes in raised wall, and a oval-shaped footrim.
Clay: brown earthenware.
Glaze: none.
Decoration: none.

Curatorial Remarks

1. (Louise Cort, 23 January 2003) The Hauges combined this stove with the small lidded cooking pot S2005.359a–b, although it is not certain that they were acquired together.

2. (Candy Chan, Research Assistant, May 21, 2003) Stoves of this type were recovered from a mid-16th century shipwreck, Ko Si Chang Three. This is the third wrecksite discovered near Ko Si Chang in the Gulf of Thailand. It carried material from Thailand, Vietnam and China. The stoves were probably used on board for cooking (Green et al. 1987, 20, fig. 22).

Stoves of this type were also recovered from the Pattaya Wreck site G: It lies in the north of Pattaya, in the Gulf of Thailand. This site is dated to the mid-16th to 17th century relative to a Chinese bowl with the Wanli (1573–1620) reign mark (Green and Harper 1983, 51, fig. 1a).

Green, Jeremy, Rosemary Harper, and Vidya Intakosi. 1987. The Ko Si Chang Three Shipwreck Excavation 1986. Australian Institute for Maritime Archaeology Special Publication No. 4. Fremantle: Australian Institute for Maritime Archaeology.

Green, Jeremy, and Rosemary Harper. 1983. The Excavation of the Pattaya Wreck Site and Survey of Three Other Sites, Thailand, 1982. Australian Institute for Maritime Archaeology Special Publication No. 1. Fremantle: Australian Institute for Maritime Archaeology.

3. (Louise Cort, 21 August 2003) The Hauges acquired most of their earthenware vessels in Ayutthaya and were under the impression that they dated to the Ayutthaya period and had been pulled out of the river. In fact, however, earthenware cooking pots are still made in the vicinity of Ayutthaya, as in many other communities, and it is very difficult to date such surviving wares.

In 1922 W. R. Graham wrote: "In the museum at Ayuthia where, under the fostering care of H. E. Phraya Boran Rajdhanindr, one of the most learned archaeologists of Siam, a very valuable collection of old pottery has been got together, there are many specimens of common earthenware of variable quality and design, that have been found amongst the ruins of that city and in the neighborhood, and that are all at least 150 years old. Some are very rough in texture and workmanship, and others are of fine clay, carefully executed and of graceful design. None of the articles are quite similar to the earthenware pots of today through the differences are in many instances small." (Graham 1986, 20)

Graham, W. A. 1986. "Thai Pottery and Ceramics: collected articles from the Journal of the Siam Society, 1922–1980". Pp. 11–37 in Thai Pottery and Ceramics, edited by Dawn F. Rooney. Bangkok: The Siam Society. Original edition, Journal of the Siam Society. 16(1): 1–27.

4. (Louise Cort, 4 September 2006) A stove of this format was recovered from the unexcavated shipwreck known as the Koh Kong wreck, off the southwest coast of Cambodia, off Koh Sdeck island, Kiri Sakor district, Koh Kong province. The wreck was identified in February 2006, and the recovery is being tracked by the National Museum in Phnom Penh. Images provided by Hab Touch, Deputy Director, show one red-slipped and two black earthenware kendi with elongated spouts (cf. S2005.339); brown-glazed jars of three sizes, also brown-glazed bottle, kendi, and vat, and unglazed mortar, from the Tao Maenam Noi kilns, Singburi province, Thailand; celadon bowls and a gourd-shaped bottle from the Si Satchanalai kilns; unglazed earthenware pots with complex paddle-impressed textures; an earthenware vessel coated with white slip, with painted red rings; and a Zhangzhou-ware dish with cobalt kylin design. Cumulatively these wares suggest a date in the 16th century, and they also suggest that the ship must have loaded at Ayutthaya and was heading along the coast to the east. According to Darryl Collins, the wood recovered is charred, suggesting that the ship sank after a fire.

To Period added Ayutthaya period; changed Date from mid-16th–18th century to 16th–17th century. To Origin and Provenance, added Probably Ayutthaya.

5. (Louise Cort, 7 January 2007) A stove of this type was recovered in 1992 from the shipwreck of a large junk known as the Ao-Thai I or the Klang-Ao, off the coast of Chonburi province, eastern Thailand. It is identified as a cheong kran stove produced at the Klong Sa Buo kiln in Ayutthaya province (Jaruk 1992, 42–43).

A stove of this type, with footrim, was recovered from the Si Chang I wreck, which is dated A.D. 1570 +/- 90 (16th century)( Sāyan et al. eds. 1990, 45, 60, no. 120, fig. 120).

Jaruk Vilaikaew. 1992. "Cultural Heritage from Underwater—the 'Ao-Thai I' junk or the 'Klang-Ao' junk"." Sinlapākǭn (The Silpakorn Journal) 35(2): 8–33.

Sāyan Phraichānčhit (Sayan Prishanchit), Siriphan Yapsanthīa (Siriphan Yapsanthea), and 'Atcharā Khǣngsārikit, eds. 1990. Khrư̄angthūaičhāk thalē (Ceramics from the Gulf of Thailand). Vol. 2, Bōrānnakhadī sī khrām (Underwater Archaeology in Thailand). Bangkok: Krom Sinlapākǭn (Fine Arts Department).

6. (Louise Cort, 30 January 2008) In contrast to this type of stove, stoves recovered from excavations at the site of the royal palace in Angkor Thom are round, with low rims, like a heavy flat basin with a wide flat base, and bear three prong-shaped supports equally spaced around the inside of the rim for the cooking pot (Franiatte 2000, 96, 112(fig. 31)). Stoves of that type are also represented in the relief scene on the Bayon of the "Chinese merchant's house."

Franiatte, Marc. 2000. "Nouvelles analyses de la céramique khmère du Palais royal d'Angkor Thom: Etude préliminaire." Udaya (Journal of Khmer Studies) 1: 91–124.

7. (Louise Cort, 31 January 2008) Tanaka Kazuhiko points our that the prototype for this type of portable stove, as found in the Philippines and elsewhere in Southeast Asia, appears to be Chinese; a stove of this type was excavated from the third layer of the Neolithic site of Hemudu, Zhejiang province, famed for the evidence of rice cultivation (Tanaka 2007, 155).

Stoves of this type have been excavated from Japan, at the Osaka Castle site level associated with a date of 1594 found on a wooden marker, and in the Sakai moated city site in the level destroyed by the conflagration of 1615 (Morimura 1991, 157, fig. 13).

Tanaka, Kazuhiko. 2007. "Fuiripin shutsudo no tosei konro, sutoobu ni tsuite [Concerning earthenware braziers and stoves excavated in the Philippines]". Pp. 153–171 in Chiiku no taiyōsei to kōkogaku—Tōnan Ajia to sono shūhen (Archaeological studies on the cultural diversity in southeast Asia and its Neighbors), edited by Aoyagi Yoji sensei taishoku kinen ronbunshu henshu iinkai [Editorial committee for the festschrift for Aoyagi Yoji's retirement]. Tokyo: Yuzankaku.

Morimura Kenichi. 1991. "Kinai to sono shūhen shutsudo no Tōnan Ajia tōjiki—shinseiken seiritsu wo keiki to suru shin nyūnyū tōjiki no saiyō (Ceramics of South East Asia found in Kinai Area and Its Vicinity: Adoption of Trade Ceramics when New Governments were Established)." Bōeki Tōji Kenkyū [Trade Ceramics Studies] 11: 131–169 (Japanese), 131 (English summary).


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