• Stoneware with iron glaze
  • 33.3 x 36 cm
  • Cizao-related ware
  • 16th-19th century, Ming or Qing dynasty
  • Origin: Cizao-related kilns, Fujian province, China
  • Provenance: Thailand or Vietnam
  • Gift of Osborne and Gratia Hauge, and Victor and Takako Hauge
  • S2005.53

Curatorial Remarks

1. (Louise Cort, 11 October 2005) Comments from Morimoto Asako, archaeologist specializing in Vietnamese and Chinese ceramics recovered from Hakata [Fukuoka], Short-term Visitor to study the Hauge collection: Chinese, possibly from the Chao'an kiln group in eastern Guangdong province. It is light in weight for its size.

2. (Louise Cort, 12 October 2005) Further comments from Morimoto Asako: The clay contains sand or small stones and feels "dry." She is reminded of the wares of Cizao ware from southern Fujian province. This kiln group was the earliest and most abundant source of pottery from finds in Hakata. Large dishes (ban) first appear at the end of the 11th century; jars appear from the early 12th century. Small vessels are made from fine clay containing no sand. The jars were finished with paddle and anvil. The anvil was unmarked (perhaps a river stone) and left no pattern on the interior; the paddle was marked and left a pattern, although on 12th century jars the marks were erased.

The Cizao kilns are located near the port of Quanzhou and wares were exported in large quantities from the late 11th century onward. There were no kilns further north making equivalent products; Cizao was the major early source of pottery. Much Cizao ware, including huge four-lug jars, is found in Japan. One kiln within this complex made small-mouth bottles and exported different versions to Japan and to Southeast Asia. The date and the contents are not yet understood.

3. (Louise Cort, 16 October 2005) Changed Origin from China or Thailand to China, Fujian province.

4. (Louise Cort, 18 October 2006) Ms. Morimoto observed a resemblance between S2005.62 and S2005.54. The former jar bears anvil-impressed patterns of concentric circles on the inside overlaid with paddle-impressed parallel lines. The latter jar also bears paddle-impressed concentric circles. No paddle-impressed concentric circles are found on wares of related jars excavated from Hakata sites; the upper limit for Hakata is 1500, so these jars must be later in date. In the present day, however, jars of this type from the Cizao kilns bear only concentric circles. Could these two jars be almost the same age? S2005.53 (bearing runny brown slip) is also part of the same family.

In her final assessment of vessels in the Hauge collection, Ms. Morimoto grouped S2005.52 and 53 as Cizao-related wares, with S2005.54 and 62 more tentatively related.

5. (Louise Cort, 16 February 2006) Jars of related form, with rolled rims, rounded shoulders, and slightly tapered bodies, made of coarse brown stoneware with brown glaze, were recovered from the wreck "Desaru," a Chinese ship that sank in the 1840s with a cargo of Chinese ceramics (www.maritimeasia.ws/desaru). The wreck was found near the town of Desaru, in the southeast of Johor in peninsular Malaysia. The jars bore cross-hatching of paddle marks on their shoulder and upper body. The three sizes were 15–17 cm high, 18–20 cm high, and 49–51 cm high. They were described as stored below deck, containing smaller pots of various types; the smallest sizes filled the spaces between larger jars. The jars were simply described as "from southern China"; the other ceramics included wares from Jingdezhen, Yixing, Dehua, Suzhou, and porcelain kilns in Guangdong.


6. (Louise Cort, 19 June 2007) A jar of related size and form, but with a broader base and therefore more vertical walls, bearing round stacking  scars on the paddle-impressed shoulders, was recovered from the Tojinyashiki excavation in Nagasaki (dating to the 18th–19th century) and was on view in the Kyushu National Museum.  

Finds of Vietnamese and Thai ceramics from Tojinyashiki and other sites in Nagasaki prefecture are summarized in Ogiura Masayoshi and Kawaguchi Yohei, "Southeast Asian Ceramics from Nagasaki," in the proceedings of the 2004 symposium, Interrelations between Kyushu and Southeast Asia.

Ogiura Masayoshi, and Kawaguchi Yohei. 2004. "Nagasaki shutsudo no Tōnan Ajia tōji (Southeast Asian Ceramics from Nagasaki)". Pp. 15–30 in Tōjiki ga kataru kōryū—Kyūshū, Okinawa kara shutsudo shita Tōnan Ajia tōjiki (Interrelations between Kyushu and Southeast Asia—Through Southeast Asian Ceramics found in Kyushu and Okinawa). Kagoshima: Tōnan Ajia Kokōgakkai (Japan Society for Southeast Asian Archaeology).

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