Time

Study and search the collections from historical perspectives linked to geography

INTRODUCTION TO TIME

The Table of Mainland Southeast Asian Chronologies represents a compilation of widely accepted scholarship in the field of Southeast Asian history as put forth by leaders in their fields. In addition, efforts have been made to keep the chronologies contemporary with the latest reliable scholarship. For reference, a bibliography of sources used to create the chronologies can be found below.

Each underlined historical epoch is linked to related ceramics in the collections.

In looking macrocosmically at Southeast Asian historiography, one problem has presented itself anew with each approach to the region. David Wyatt regards this as "the problem of defining geographic units of history...[by]...reading back into previous history the units that have been the scenes of modern history.... The problem is further compounded when such ‘national' units are identified and defined in ethnic terms.... Even when such labels were placed on groups of people by contemporary sources, we must not assume that those labels necessarily meant the same thing in former times as the do today." (Wyatt, 2003, 3)

I have attempted to address the problem Wyatt eloquently phrased through two means. First, the chronological tables indicate the relationship between time and space for the major political entities that occupied the Southeast Asian landscape. Included below each period/kingdom/dynasty are notes on the capital city and known cultural boundaries through time. Second, inter-polity exchanges are depicted through the use of language that focuses attention on specific actors rather than on general ethnic categories.

The series of historical maps of Southeast Asia also reflects this dynamic landscape over time. Credit is given for the source of each map.

Every effort is being made to make the chronologies complete and to keep them updated as new scholarship is produced and old scholarship is uncovered. Suggestions for citations are welcome and may be submitted through Field Notes.

The Table of Mainland Southeast Asian Chronologies and related historical maps was compiled by George Ashley Williams IV.

 

Bibliography of related sources

Aung-Thwuin, Michael A. 2005. The Mists of Rāmañña-The Legend That Was Lower Burma. Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press.

Chandler, David. 2000. A History of Cambodia. 3rd ed. Boulder: West View Press.

Hudson, Bob. 2004. "The Origins of Bagan: The archaeological landscape of Upper Burma to AD 1300". PhD, University of Sydney, Sydney.

Lieberman, Victor. 2003. Strange Parallels—Southeast Asia in Global Context, c. 800–1830. Vol. 1: Integration on the Mainland. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Stuart-Fox, Martin. 1998. The Lao Kingdom of Lān Xāng: Rise and Decline. Bangkok: White Lotus Co. Ltd.

Taylor, Keith W. 1992. "The Early Kingdoms". 55–136 in The Cambridge History of Southeast Asia, From Early Times to c.1800, edited by Nicholas Tarling. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press.

Vickery, Michael. 2005. "Champa Revised". Review of Reviewed Item. ARI Working Paper, No. 37, {Wade, 2007 #1021}.

Wyatt, David K. 1982. Thailand-A Short History. New Haven and London: Yale University Press.

---. 2001. "Relics, oaths and politics in thirteenth-century Siam". Journal of Southeast Asian Studies 32 (1): 3–66.



Chronologies

Vietnam

Location Time
Han-Viet period 111 BCE – 41 CE
Giao Chi period 43 – 544
Early Ly dynasty/Van Xuan period 544 – 602
An Nan period 603 – 939
Administrative center in Hanoi  
Khuk dynasty 905 – 931
Ngo dynasty 938 – 965
Twelve Warlords period 966 – 968
Dinh dynasty 968 – 980
Dai Co Viet kingdom founded  
Early Le dynasty 980 – 1009
Ly dynasty 1009 – 1225
capital at Thang Long (Hanoi) 

Ly name their polity Dai Viet kingdom – 1054

Southern boundry at Ha Tinh province – 1100

 
Tran dynasty 1225 – 1400
capital at Thang Long (Hanoi)

Tran absorb lands from Hai Van Pass to Indrapura – 1306

 
Ho dynasty 1400 – 1407
capital at Thanh Nghe (Nghe An, Ha Tinh, and Thanh Hoa)  
Ming Chinese rule 1407 – 1427
Later Le dynasty 1428 – 1527
capital at Thang Long (Hanoi)

Later Le raze Vijaya – 1471

Southern boundary at Gia Lai/Phu Yen provinces – 1475

Later Le expand into western hills – 1479

 
Mac dynasty 1527 – 1592
capital at Dong Kinh (Hanoi)

dispute with Le shrinks territory: new southern boundary at Red River, Thanh Hoa – 1539

 
Restored Later Le dynasty 1533 – 1782
Thanh Hoa claims Le figurehead as legitimate – 1533

Northern boundary at Thanh Hoa, southern boundary at Gia Lai/Phu Yen provinces – 1539

 
Trinh Lords period (North) 1539 – 1782
capital at Hanoi

southern boundary at Dong Hoi, Quang Binh province

 
Nguyen Lords period (South) 1558 – 1777

southern boundary at Gia Lai/Phu Yen provinces

southern boundary at Dak Nong (Lam Dong/Binh Thuan provinces) – 1650

territory includes Mekong delta provinces – 1760

 
Tay Son dynasty 1778 – 1802
Nguyen dynasty 1802 – 1945
French colonial rule 1859 – 1954

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Champa

Location Time
Lin yi ca. 137 – 785
Northern period — ca. 137–446

Southern period — 446–785

 
Early Southern period 774 – 854
territory concentrated around epicenters at Panduranga (around Phan Rang) and Kauthara (Nha Trang)  
Indrapura 875 – 1190
capital at Indrapura (Thu Bon valley region)

northern border at Quang Binh province

Champa trades Hoan and Ai provinces to Ly dynasty — 1076

Khmer conquest of Indrapura — 1190

 
Vijaya ca. 1000 - 1471
capital at Vijaya (near Bind Dinh/Quy Nhom)

Khmer occupy Northern Champa — ca. 1190–1210

Champa trades O and Ly provinces to Tran — 1306

Cham incursion into southern Tran lands — 1360–1390

Ho dynasty absorbs parts of Quang Nam and Quang Ngai — 1402

Later Le conquest of Vijaya — 1471

 
Later Southern period 1471 – 1653
epicenters at Panduranga and Kauthara

northern border just south of Quy Nhon — 1600

northern border at the mouth of the Da Rang river — 1611

 
Panduranga period 1653 – 1832
Vietnamese stop referring to "Chiem Thanh" — 1692

Vietnam absorbs remaining Cham territories — 1832

 

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Cambodia

Location Time
Pre-Angkor period 550 BCE – 802 CE
Kingdom of ”Funan” – 200–600

territory included southern Cambodia through Kompong Cham

 
Angkor period 802 – 1431
capital at Hariharalaya (modern day Rolous)

capital moved to Yasodharapura (Angkor) – 889

territory included northeast Thailand (Khorat plateau), Kampong Svay, and the Mekong delta – 889

capital moved to Chok Gyargar (Koh Ker) – 928

capital moved to Yasodharapura – 944

Angkor absorbed Lavo (Lopburi) – 1010–1050

Lavo bid for independance – ca. 1155-1181

Angkorian presence in Ping Valley (north of Nakhon Sawan) – ca. 1175

Angkor occupation of Champa – ca. 1190–1210

territory included much of Thailand and Southen Laos – ca. 1200

Khmer influence waned in Chao Phraya basin – by 1220

much of present-day Thailand independant from Khmer Angkor period rule – by 1250

 
Post-Angkor period 1431 – 1863
capitals at Lovek, Phnom Penh, and Udong

Angkor area still a metropolis for Khmer people

Thai occupy capital of Lovek – 1594

Vietnamese absorb Saigon area lands – ca. 1620

Vietnamese absorb territory bordering the Gulf of Siam – ca. early/mid 18th c.

Taksin occupies Battambang and Siem Reap, where they remain under Bangkok suzerainty – 1768–1830s

capital moves to Phnom Penh – 1812

Vietnamese suzerainty in Cambodia – 1830s–1847

boundaries at Kompong Svay, Kratie, Pursat, Ba Phnom, Bati, Mekong, and points south of Chhlong – 1840s–1863

 
French colonial rule 1863 – 1953

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Laos

Location Time
Muang Sua 698 – 1353

Capital at Xieng Dong Xieng Thong (Luang Prabang)

Muang Sua occupied by Nanzhao – 701–ca. 877

Occupation by Khmer – 1185–1191

 
Yonok ca. 11th century-1259

Capital at Chiang Saen

Territory includes South China, North Thailand, and Northwest Laos

Lan Na absorbs Yonok – 1259

 
Lan Sang period 1353 – 1707

Capital at Luang Prabang – 1353

Territory includes Sipsong Phan Na and Nam U valley, North Khorat plateau, and possibly as far south as Roi Et and Chi Rivers – ca. 1360

Capital moves to Viang Chan (Vientaine) – 1564

Toungoo incursion into Laos – 1564–85

Toungoo occupies Lan Sang – 1569–70

Toungoo occupation of Laos – 1575–85

Border stretches form Lo Phi in south to Pha Dai in north, and Ayutthaya to Vietnam – 1656

 
Three Kingdoms period 1707
Viang Chan (Vientaine) period 1707 – 1893

Capital at Viang Chan (Vientiane)

Bangkok incorporates Viang Chan (Vientiane) as a principality – 1778

Lao war for independence from Bangkok – 1826–1828

 
Luang Prabang period 1707 – 1975

Capital at Luang Prabang

Kon-baung occupies Luang Prabang – 1765

Bangkok incorporates Luang Prabang as a principality – 1778

Under Bangkok Suzerainty,Viang Chan annexes Luang Prabang, as well as Hauphan and Sipson Chu Tai – 1792–96

Luang Prabang absorbs Siang Khwang – ca. 1830s

 
Champassak period 1713 – 1946

Capital at Champassak

Territory includes lands south of the Xe Bang Hiang river to Stung Treng, and the Lower Mun and Chi river valleys (Lower Khorat plateau)

Bangkok incorpates Champassak as a principality – 1778

Capital moves to Pakxe – 1791

Lao war for independence from Bangkok – 1826–28

 

 

 

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Thailand

Location Time
Ban Chiang culture 4400 BCE – 200 CE
Ban Prasat culture 1000 BCE – 600 BCE
Dvaravati period 550 – 990
territory in the Lower Chao Phraya valley  
Haripunjaya period ca. 799 – 1292

capital at Lamphun

Haripunjaya absorbed by Lan Na – 1281

 
Period of muang pluralism 1250 – ca. 1400
Sukhothai period ca. 1219/43 – 1378

capital at Sukhothai

territory incluldes Sawankhalok, Uttaradit, Kamphaengphet and Tak – 1279

Sukhothai absorbs Suphanburi – 1292

territory includes Phitsanulok, Lom Sak, Viang Chan, Nakhon Sawan, Ratchaburi, Phetburi, Nakhon Si Thammarat, Phrae Nan and Luang Prabang – ca. 1317

Sukhothai reduced to regional importance – ca. 1320

Sukhothai accepts Ayutthayan suzerainty – 1378

Ayutthaya imposes legal system on Sukhothai – 1396

Sukhothai reduced to vassal of Ayutthaya – 1412

capital moves to Phitsanulok – 1460

Ayutthaya annexes Sukhothai as province – 1438

 
Lan Na period 1250 – 1774

capital at Chiang Saen Lan Na absorbs Yonok – 1259

capital moves to Chiang Rai – 1262

Lan Na absorbs Phayao – 1276

Lan Na absorbs Haripunjaya – 1281

capital moves to Chiang Mai – 1292/96

Lan Na absorbs Tak – 1321

territory included NW Laos, Man U Valley, Lumphun, and parts of Xianyaburi province – pre-1400

Toungoo occupies Lan Na – 1578–1772

Chakri kings absorb Lan Na – 1774

 
Ayutthaya period 1351 – 1767

capital at Ayutthaya

territory includes Suphanburi and Lopburi — ca. 1360

Ayutthaya absorbs Sukhothai — 1378–1438

territory includes Nakhon Sawan, Phitsanulok, and Kamphaengphet — by 1378

Sukhothai accepts Ayutthayan suzerainty — 1378

Ayutthaya absorbs Lampang — 1386

Ayutthaya absorbs Nan — 1396

capital temporarily moves to Phitsanulok — 1463–1488

Ayutthaya absorbs Tenasserim — ca. 1460s

Ayutthaya absorbs Tavoy — 1488

territory includes entire Chao Phraya valley — ca. 1500

Toungoo occupation of Ayutthaya — 1569–1581

Ayutthaya occopies Lovek — 1596

Ayutthaya absorbs Tenasserim and Tavoy — ca. 1600

Ayutthaya absorbs Martaban, Rangoon, Pegu, and Mergui — 1662

Burmeze raze Ayutthaya — 1767

 
Five Interim Power Centers period 1767 – 1770

Nakhon Ratchasima

Fang/Sawangkhaburi (East of Nan river)

Phitsanulok Sawngkhaburi absorbs Phitsanulok — 1770

Nakhon Si Thammarat–territory includes land South of Chumpon

Thonburi – territory ruled by Taksin

 
Taksin Unification period 1770 – 1782

capital at Thonburi Taksin absorbs Battambang and Siem Reap — 1770

Lan Na joins Taksin in forcing Kon-baung from North — 1774

Kon-baung occupies territory from Phitsanulok to Chiang Mai — 1775–1776

Laos and NE Thailand accept Thai suzerainty — 1778

Rebellion in Ayutthaya province ignites the collapse of Taksin's rule and the installation of the Chakri kings at Bangkok — 1782

 
Bangkok period 1782 – 1932

capital at Bangkok

territory includes the Khorat plateau, Laos, Cambodia, Nakhon Si Thammarat, and Buriram — by 1809

 

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Burma

Location Time
Pyu period 1-2 c. – 840
Pagan period ca. 950

Capital at Pagan
Territory includes upper Irrawaddy and headwaters of Salween – ca. 1050
Anaw-rahta occupies Thaton – 1057*
Territory includes Chin, Kachin, Shan hills,
Tenasserim, and the northernmost Irrawaddy valley – ca. 13th c.

*EXPLAIN

 
Ava period 1365 – 1555

Capital at Ava

Territory includes upper Irrawaddy to Northeastern hills

Shans occupation of Ava city – 1275

Prome and Toungoo become fully independent – ca. 1450

 
Toungoo Dynasty ca. 1486

Epicenter in Sittang valley — as early as 1279

Expansion into dry zone — 1486–1550

Toungoo absorb Kyaukse (from Ava) — 1503

Toungoo expansion into lower Burma — 1531–50

Pegu, Martaban, and Prome absorbed by Toungoo — 1539

Capital moved to Pegu — 1539

Toungoo unifies North and South Burma — 1551–81

Territory includes parts of Manipur and entire Shan state (Mogaung, Mong Mit, Hsipaw) — 1555–59

Toungoo reduces Lan Na to vassal state — 1564

Ayutthaya, Laos, Lan Na occupied by Toungoo — 1569

Territory includes Manipur to Cambodia and Yunnan to Arakan — 1569–84

Collapse of Toungoo — 1584–99
  Ayutthaya declares independence — 1581
  Pegu occupied by Arakan with local
  assistance — 1599

 
Restored Toungoo dynasty 1597 – 1752
Capital at Ava — 1613                          

Capital moved to Amarapura and Mandalay — 1635

Territory included Arakan Mts. to Kenghung and Chiang Mai, and Mogaung to Tavoy — 1620–1752

Ava occupation by Pegu signals end of Tuongoo — 1751
 
Pegu period 1740 – 1757
Kon-baung period 1752 – 1885
Capital at Ava

Pegu absorbed by Kon-baung — 1757

Kon-baung absorb Martaban, Tavoy, Tenasserim, Kiu Phetburi, and Ratburi — 1760

Lan Na independence from Burmese — 1761

Kon-baung occupation of Chiang Mai and Lamphun — 1763–64

Kon-baung occupation of Lan Na and Luang Prabang — 1765

Manipur absorbed by Kon-baung — 1813

Assam absorbed by Kon-baung — 1819

First Anglo-Burmese war — 1824–26
  British assume control of Assam, Manipur,
  Arakan, and Tenasserim

Second Anglo-Burmese war — 1852
  British assume control of Irrawaddy delta

Capital moved to Mandalay — 1859

Third Anglo-Burmese war  — 1885
  British assume control of Upper Burma

 
Colonial period 1886 – 1946

Burma administered as a province of British India — 1886–1937

Burma became a self-governing British colony

 

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China

Location Time
Han Dynasty 206 BCE – 220 CE
Period of Division 220 – 589

also known as the Three Kingdoms period

 
Sui dynasty 581 – 618
Tang dynasty 618 – 907
Five Dynasties period 907 – 960
Song dynasty 960 – 1279
Yuan dynasty 1279 – 1368
Ming dynasty 1368 – 1644

Hongwu reign: 1368–98
Jianwen reign: 1399–1402
Yongle reign: 1403–24
Xuande reign: 1426–35
Zhengtong reign: 1436–49
Jingtai reign: 1450–56
Tianshun reign: 1457–64
Chenghua reign: 1465–87
Hongzhi reign: 1488–1505
Zhengde reign: 1506–21
Jiajing reign: 1522–66
Longqing reign: 1567–72
Wanli reign: 1573–1620
Tianqi reign: 1621–27
Chongzhen reign: 1628–44

 
Qing dynasty 1644 – 1912

Shunzhi reign: 1644–1661
Kingxi reign: 1662–1722
Yongzheng reign: 1723–1735
Qianlong reign: 1735–1796
Jiaqing reign: 1796–1820
Daoguang reign: 1821–1850
Xianfeng reign: 1851–1861
Tongzhi reign: 1862–1874
Guangxu reign: 1875–1908
Xuantong reign: 1909–1912

 

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Last updated Thursday, October 16, 2014